The process for making laws in the United States is based first and foremost on the Constitution of the United States, and is also governed by the rules of the House and Senate.
The Center on Congress at the University of Indiana maintains an excellent website that provides a good overview of the legislative process.
The Library of Congress also provides a more detailed look at the process of creating legislation in the House of Representatives.
You may also be interested in learning the definitions of some common words and phrases used in the House of Representatives. A short glossary is available via THOMAS, a project of the Library of Congress.